The basic principle of gold extraction by cyanidation

Cyanide gold extraction method is one of the main methods for extracting gold from gold mines. The explanation of the mechanism of cyanide on the dissolution of gold is still inconsistent. Most people think that in the presence of oxygen in the cyanide solution of gold, a gold complex can be formed and dissolved. The basic reaction formula is:
4Au+8KCN+O 2 +2H 2 O=4KAu(CN) 2 +4KOH
It is generally believed that gold is cyanide dissolved in a two-step reaction:
2Au+4KCN+O 2 +2H 2 O=2Au(CN) 2 + H 2 O+2KOH
2Au+4KCN+ H 2 O 2 =2KAu(CN) 2 +2KOH
The surface of the gold is gradually dissolved in the surface and in the cyanide solution, and the concentration of oxygen in the solution is related to the dissolution rate of gold.

Titanium Plate Heat Exchanger

TITANIUM HEAT EXCHANGERS
In chemical processes, the use of Titanium Heat Exchangers has been found to be a cost-effective method of resisting leaks from corrosion on a process line. The following information provides additional background on Titanium, its characteristics, strengths, and how a Titanium Heat Exchanger could be the answer to corrosion in your system.
Life Cycle Benefits of Titanium Heat Exchangers
Titanium Heat Exchangers are highly cost-effective over the entire life cycle of the equipment. Properly maintained, Titanium Heat Exchangers can operate for decades, making them a very economical choice.
Titanium Heat Exchangers can:
Provide an extended service life compared to other materials of construction
Eliminate expensive downtime due to equipment failure
Do away with requirement for spare parts inventory
Provide superior corrosion resistance
Deliver high heat transfer efficiency
Accommodate high steam pressure to reduce required surface area
Eliminate breakage during handling, installation and operation due to fully-welded metal construction
Titanium the Metal
Titanium is one of several metals which fall into the category of reactive metals or corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs). Reducing or oxidizing environments, with or without chlorides, and temperatures up to 1200°F, are all possible with this group of exceptional materials. In addition to high resistance to uniform corrosion attack, CRAs can be very successful against pitting, crevice and stress corrosion.

Titanium is used as the material of construction for Heat Exchangers in chemical, petrochemical, oil & gas and other industrial manufacturing environments. In these processes, aggressive fluids, often at very high temperature and or pressure, come into contact with equipment surfaces, testing the strength and corrosion resistance of the material.

Considered the workhorse of the reactive metals, Titanium is readily available. More Titanium goes into corrosion-resistant equipment fabrication than all other reactive metals combined. Please see Applications of Titanium for a more in depth look at additional uses for Titanium that includes some comparative corrosion resistance data, media, concentrations and temperatures.


Titanium Heat Exchanger Designs

TITAN offers a full range of TEMA-type Titanium Heat Exchangers. Utilizing both HTRI and AspenTech thermal design software, we can custom design a Heat Exchanger to fit your application. TITAN`s Heat Exchanger designs take advantage of loose-lined, solid, and explosive clad tube sheet options based on the mechanical demands of the application.
TITAN manufactures pressure equipment in accordance with all major international design standards and pressure vessel codes.

Titanium Corrosion Resistance

TITAN Titanium Heat Exchangers are used in a wide variety of environments. To view a list of materials where Titanium is commonly used, please visit Applications of Titanium.

Titanium Fabrications
In addition to Titanium Heat Exchangers, TITAN regularly designs, engineers and fabricates the following types of Titanium custom process equipment:
Titanium Columns and Towers
Titanium Pressure Vessels
Titanium Reactors
Titanium Spargers
Titanium Pipe
Titanium Piping Systems

Titanium Heat Exchanger,Titanium Plate Heat Exchanger,Exchanger Titanium Aquarium,Titanium Tube Heat Exchanger

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