Application of Combined Machine Tools in Small and Medium Batch Production

The combined machine tool is a semi-automatic or automatic special machine tool based on general components, together with special parts and fixtures designed according to the specific shape and processing technology of the workpiece.

Combined machine tools generally use multi-axis, multi-knife, multi-process, multi-side or multi-position processing at the same time, the production efficiency is several times to several dozen times higher than that of general machine tools. Since the general parts have been standardized and serialized, they can be flexibly configured as needed, shortening the design and manufacturing cycle. Therefore, the combined machine tool has the advantages of low cost and high efficiency, and is widely used in mass production and mass production, and can be used to form an automatic production line.

Combined machine tools are generally used for machining box or extraordinary shaped parts. During processing, the workpiece generally does not rotate, and the drilling, reaming, boring, reaming, boring, milling, cutting, internal and external threading, and machining the external circle are performed by the rotary motion of the tool and the relative feed motion of the tool and the workpiece. And face and so on. Some combined machine tools use a turning head to hold the workpiece and make it rotate. The tool can perform feed motion, and can also realize the machining of the outer circle and the end surface of certain rotary body parts (such as flywheel, axle of automobile rear axle, etc.).

Since the 1970s, with the development of indexable tools, precision milling cutters, automatic inspection of boring holes and tool automatic compensation technologies, the machining accuracy of combined machine tools has also improved. Milling plane flatness of up to 0.05 mm / 1000 mm, the surface roughness can be as low as 2.5 ~ 0.63 microns; boring accuracy of up to IT7 ~ 6, hole pitch precision up to O.03 ~ O.02 microns.

Special machine tools developed with the rise of the automotive industry. In the special machine tool, some parts are gradually developed into general parts due to repeated use, resulting in a combined machine tool.

The earliest combined machine tools were made in the United States in 1911 to process automotive parts. Initially, each machine tool factory had its own general-purpose component standards. In order to improve the interchangeability of common parts of different manufacturers and to facilitate user use and maintenance, in 1953, Ford Motor Company of the United States and General Motors Corporation negotiated with the United States machine tool manufacturers to determine the principle of standardization of general components of combined machine tools, that is, strict regulations The size of the links between parts, but no specification of the part structure.

General components can be divided into five categories: power components, support components, transmission components, control components, and auxiliary components. The power unit is the component that provides the main machine and the feed movement for the combined machine tool. There are power boxes, cutting heads and power slides.

The supporting member is a member for mounting a power slide, a cutting head or a jig with a feeding mechanism, and includes a side base, an intermediate base, a bracket, an adjustable bracket, a pillar, a pillar base, and the like.

The conveying part is used to convey the workpiece or spindle box to the processing station. It mainly includes indexing rotary table, ring indexing rotary table, indexing drum and reciprocating table.

The control part is a part for controlling the automatic working cycle of the machine tool, such as a hydraulic station, an electric cabinet and a console. Accessories include lubricating devices, cooling devices and chip removal devices.

In order to make the combined machine tool able to be used in small and medium batch production, it is often necessary to apply group technology to concentrate the parts with similar structures and processes on one combined machine tool to improve the utilization of the machine tool. There are two common types of such machine tools, which can be interchangeable spindle box type machine tools and turret type combination machine tools.

The future development of the combined machine tool will adopt more speed control motors and ball screw drives to simplify the structure and shorten the production cycle. The digital control system and spindle box and automatic fixture replacement system will be adopted to improve the process adjustability; and Flexible manufacturing systems.

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